Measuring the equation of state of trapped ultracold bosonic systems in an optical lattice with in-situ density imaging

Physics – Condensed Matter – Quantum Gases

Scientific paper

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8 pages, 10 figures

Scientific paper

We analyze quantitatively how imaging techniques with single-site resolution allow to measure thermodynamical properties that cannot be inferred from time-of-light images for the trapped Bose-Hubbard model. If the normal state extends over a sufficiently large range, the chemical potential and the temperature can be extracted from a single shot, provided the sample is in thermodynamic equilibrium. When the normal state is too narrow, temperature is low but can still be extracted using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem over the entire trap range as long as the local density approximation remains valid, as was recently suggested by Qi Zhou and Tin-Lun Ho [arXiv:0908.3015]. However, for typical present-day experiments, the number of samples needed is of the order of 1000 in order to get the temperature at least $10 \%$ accurate, but it is possible to reduce the variance by 2 orders of magnitude if the density-density correlation length is short, which is the case for the Bose-Hubbard model. Our results provide further evidence that cold gases in an optical lattices can be viewed as quantum analog computers.

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