Clustered Wigner crystal phases of cold polar molecules in arrays of one-dimensional tubes

Physics – Condensed Matter – Quantum Gases

Scientific paper

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9 pages, 8 figures

Scientific paper

We analyze theoretically polar molecules confined in planar arrays of one dimensional tubes. In the classical limit, if the number of tubes is finite, new types of "clustered Wigner crystals" with increasingly many molecules per unit cell can be stabilized by tuning the in-plane angle between the dipolar moments and the tube direction. Quantum mechanically, these phases melt into distinct "clustered Luttinger liquids." We map the phase diagram of the system and find that the requirements for cluster formation are reachable in current experiments. We discuss possible experimental signatures of clustered phases.

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