Physics – Condensed Matter – Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics
REVTEX 4. 18 pages with 10 figures. Accepted for publication in Physical Review B. This paper incorporates material from arXiv
Energy spectra and spin configurations of a system of N=4 electrons in lateral double quantum dots (quantum dot Helium molecules) are investigated using exact diagonalization (EXD), as a function of interdot separation, applied magnetic field (B), and strength of interelectron repulsion. As a function of the magnetic field, the energy spectra exhibit a low-energy band consisting of a group of six states, with the number six being a consequence of the conservation of the total spin and the ensuing spin degeneracies for four electrons. The energies of the six states appear to cross at a single value of the magnetic field, and with increasing Coulomb repulsion they tend to become degenerate, with a well defined energy gap separating them from the higher-in-energy excited states. The appearance of the low-energy band is a consequence of the formation of a Wigner supermolecule, with the four electrons (two in each dot) being localized at the vertices of a rectangle. Using spin-resolved pair-correlation distributions, a method for mapping the complicated EXD many-body wave functions onto simpler spin functions associated with a system of four localized spins is introduced. Detailed interpretation of the EXD spin functions and EXD spectra associated with the low-energy band via a 4-site Heisenberg cluster (with B-dependent exchange integrals) is demonstrated. Aspects of spin entanglement, referring to the well known N-qubit Dicke states, are also discussed.
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