Asymptotic Dynamics in Scalar Field Theory: Anomalous Relaxation

Physics – High Energy Physics – High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

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ReV Tex, 43 pages, 37 .ps figures

Scientific paper

10.1103/PhysRevD.57.7388

We analyze the dynamics of dissipation and relaxation in the unbroken and broken symmetry phases of scalar theory in the nonlinear regime for large initial energy densities, and after linear unstabilities (parametric or spinodal) are shut-off by the quantum backreaction. A new time scale emerges that separates the linear from the non-linear regimes. This scale is non- perturbative in the coupling and initial amplitude. The non-perturbative evolution is studied in the large the N limit for the O(N) vector model. A combination of numerical analysis and the multitime scale analysis reveals the presence of unstable bands in the nonlinear regime. These are associated with power law growth of quantum fluctuations, that result in power law relaxation and dissipation with non-universal and non-perturbative dynamical anomalous exponents.We find substantial particle production during this non-linear evolu- tion which is of the same order as that in the linear regime. The expectation value of the scalar field vanishes asymptotically transferring all of the initial energy into produced particles via the non-linear resonances in the unbroken symmetry phase.The effective mass for the quantum modes tends asympto- tically to a constant plus oscillating O(1/t) terms. This slow decay causes the power behaviour in the modes which become free for t=infty. We derive a simple expression for the equation of state for the fluid of produced particles that interpolates between radiation-type and dust-type equations according to the initial value of the order parameter for unbroken symmetry. For broken symmetry the produced particles are massless Goldstone bosons with a radiation-type equation of state. We find the onset of a novel form of dynamical Bose condensation in the collisionless regime in the absence of thermalization.

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